"I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies." (Thomas Jefferson)
"Governments never do anything by accident; if government does something you can bet it was carefully planned." (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
"The high office of President has been used to format a plot to destroy the American's freedom, and before I leave office I must inform the citizen of his plight." (John F. Kennedy at Columbia University, 10 days before his assassination)
This country, which was founded on Godly principles, finds itself having some perplexing problems. One of which, is a reported four trillion dollars debt, this debt is actually closer to twelve trillion dollars, that's a twelve and twelve zeros.
"If ever again our nation stumbles upon unfunded paper, it shall surely be like death to our body politic. This country will crash." (George Washington)
How did this country get so far in debt, is it the Americans' fault, the government's fault, or is it possible that there are other forces at work behind the scenes, causing the manipulation of the currencies of the world? For sure the ultimate blame rests with the people of America. The responsibility of freedom is secured by individuals and can only be given away individually, the minority cannot relinquish the rights for the majority. Thomas Jefferson said: "If a nation expects to be ignorant and free it expects something it cannot be." God's Holy Word says in Hosea 4:6: "My people are destroyed by a lack of knowledge."
Can a country that murders its children through government-sponsored abortion expect to prosper, or even survive? Can a nation escape God's judgment while murdering its children and allowing, even promoting, homosexuality, drug abuse, usury, and the blatant violation of its people by government? The Word of God and history prove this cannot occur without the physical destruction of its government and its people for allowing the violation of God's Laws.
Here is what the Lord says about the violation of His laws: "Woe to them, because they have strayed from me! Destruction to them, because they have rebelled against me! I long to redeem them but they speak lies against me. They do not cry out to me from their hearts but wail upon their beds. They gather together for grain and new wine but turn away from me. I trained them and strengthened them, but they plot evil against me. They do not turn to the Most High; they are like a faulty bow. Their leaders will fall by the sword because of their insolent words. For this they will be ridiculed in the land of Egypt. Put the trumpet to your lips! An eagle is over the house of the LORD because the people have broken my covenant and rebelled against my law. Israel cries out to me, 'O our God, we acknowledge you!' But Israel has rejected what is good; an enemy will pursue him. They set up kings without my consent; they choose princes without my approval. With their silver and gold they make idols for themselves to their own destruction" (Hosea 7:13-8:4).
How do you destroy a country without firing a shot and without destroying it's infrastructure? By controlling its money, manipulating inflation and using non-redeemable paper money instead of gold and silver. Here is what the Lord says about paper money: "The LORD detests differing weights, and dishonest scales do not please him" (Proverbs 20:23).
Here is a quote from John Adams: "I am firmly of the opinion that there never was a paper pound, a paper dollar, or a paper promise of any kind, that ever yet obtained a general currency [as money] but by force or fraud, generally by both."
Also, a quote from Count Destutt de Tracy: "A theft of greater magnitude and still more ruinous, is the making of paper money; it is greater because in this money there is absolutely no real value; it is more ruinous because by its gradual depreciation during the time of its existence, it produces the effect which would be proration of the coins. All those iniquities are founded on the false idea the money is but a sign."
I'm going to show you some examples in our nation's history, of how we have been conquered and enslaved. By the time the Revolutionary War was over the United States government could not pay its war debts, altogether Congress printed two hundred million dollars in paper currency just to operate the government. In a short time they had to borrow money just to pay the interest; does this sound familiar?
William Davie, who was a delegate from North Carolina  said: "Can our general government recur to the ordinary expedient of loans? During the late war, large sums were advanced to us by foreign states and individuals. Congress has not been enabled to pay even the interest of these debts, with honor and punctuality. The requisitions made on the states have been every where unproductive, and some of them have not paid a stiver. . . .Many of the individuals who lent us money in the hour of our distress, are now reduced to indigence in consequence of our delinquency. So low and hopeless are the finances of the United States, that, the year before last, Congress was obliged to borrow money even to pay the interest of the principal which we had borrowed before. This wretched resource of turning interest into principal, is the most humiliating and disgraceful measure that a nation could take, and approximates with rapidity to absolute ruin."
After the Revolutionary War, the military almost rebelled, and would have if it had not been for the pleadings of George Washington. In 1787, Shay's Rebellion broke out as a result of the financial woes in this country. This caused a great rift between government and the people. Congress decided that the Articles of the Confederation were not sufficient and that a constitution must be written to protect the government and allow trade between the States and other countries. Only then would Congress be able to provide protection for the government and the States, and only then would they, through this commercial enterprise, be able to pay it's debts.
However, the forefathers made a big mistake by allowing the international bankers to operate in this country with their foreign interests unchecked. Whoever controls the money of the world controls the world.
Here are a few quotes: "Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce." (Paul Warburg, drafter of the Federal Reserve Act)
"Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation and I care not who makes its laws." (Mayer Amschel Rothschild)
"A great industrial Nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of credit is concentrated. The growth of the Nation and all our activities are in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated Governments in the world -- no longer a Government of free opinion, no longer a government of conviction and vote of the majority, but a Government by the opinion and duress of small groups of dominant men." (Woodrow Wilson)
"A power over a man's subsistence amounts to a power over his will." (Alexander Hamilton)
"It is not a matter of what is true that counts, but a matter of what is perceived to be true." (Henry Kissinger)
There are and have been groups of people with this power and goal. These groups have passed down from generation to generation the desire to control and rule the world. Just to name a few of whom I'm sure you've heard -- Rothschild, Morgan and Rockefeller. In order for these groups to implement their plan they have used the secret societies such as, Jesuits, Free Masonry and the Illuminati. The people of this country thought we won the Revolutionary War. They were not aware of the forces at work and the covenants made through treaties, and the obligations involved, when using the king's money. Nor were they aware of the taxation that ensues for using the kings money and the slavery that follows.
Here's what our Lord said about this: "We have had to borrow money to pay the king's tax on our fields and vineyards. Although we are of the same flesh and blood as our countrymen and though our sons are as good as theirs, yet we have to subject our sons and daughters to slavery. Some of our daughters have already been enslaved, but we are powerless, because our fields and our vineyards belong to others" (Nehemiah 5:4-5). And in I Samuel 8:11-18 He said: "This is what the king who will reign over you will do: He will take your sons and make them serve with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots. Some he will assign to be commanders of thousands and commanders of fifties, and others to plow his ground and reap his harvest, and still others to make weapons of war and equipment for his chariots. He will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers. He will take the best of your fields and vineyards and olive groves and give them to his attendants. He will take a tenth of your grain and of your vintage and give it to his officials and attendants. Your menservants and maidservants and the best of your cattle and donkeys he will take for his own use. He will take a tenth of your flocks, and you yourselves will become his slaves. When that day comes, you will cry out for relief from the king you have chosen, and the LORD will not answer you in that day."
"If the American people ever allow the banks to control issuance of their currency, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their fathers occupied." (Thomas Jefferson)
Let's assume we are starting all over again in this country, and up until, now the free and independent people who occupy this country have had their needs met by God Almighty and used barter as a medium of exchange. Now they're going to introduce private banking and issue money as debt.
Let's say the bank agrees to loan the government one thousand dollars (paper, gold, silver or rocks) and expects ten percent in interest, payable in legal tender as payment for the use this money. Now remember, the only money in existence is the money the bank is now going to create. The bank makes the loan to the government and at the same time the free and sovereign people wish to share the convenience of using this new money rather than barter.
The only money in existence is that created by the bank and loaned to the government, and the once free and sovereign people. Where will the ten percent come from to meet the interest on the loan? Government has agreed to meet its obligations with legal tender. The government may borrow more money to pay the interest, or the bank could foreclose on the government's property.
The people have the same problem because they have also borrowed the bank's money, at ten percent interest, with no possibility of ever repaying the interest because the interest money was never physically created, it is merely a book entry. However, they are unaware that this is a scam and have been taught to trust the government.
The great minds in government decide they can repay the interest government owes by raising a direct tax on the income of their once free and sovereign people, making it voluntary while phrasing the tax laws in such a form as to make it appear to be mandatory. The resourceful educated minority learn how this works, able to acquire more money from the other less resourceful people, and repay interest from their surplus. The less resourceful have gotten so poor that they have begun losing their property so the number unable to pay the bank's usury becomes greater every year. Eventually, because of this use of non-redeemable paper money, the bankers will foreclose on the government and its people.
Your whole nation is BANKRUPT. The citizens begin to realize: One, government does not have their best interests at heart. Two, government representatives would permit your enslavement for their personal gain. Three, government has fraudulently obtained your co-operation in the looting of your own money and property. Four, government schools have withheld the knowledge that would have made the fraud impossible.
"Those unaware are unaware of being unaware." (Merrill Jenkins)
Are you mad yet? No! Still in denial. The following authorities should overcome your denial:-
First, Marriner Eccles, then chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in testimony before the Banking and Currency Committee of the House of Representatives on the Banking Act of 1935. Mr. Eccles testified: "In purchasing offerings of Government bonds, the banking system as a whole creates new money, or bank deposits. When the banks buy a billion dollars of Government bonds as they are offered -- and you have to consider the banking system as a whole, as a unit -- the banks credit the deposit account of the Treasury with a billion dollars. And they debit their Government bond account a billion dollars, or actually create, by a bookkeeping entry, a billion dollars."
Second, President Eisenhower's Secretary of the Treasury Anderson in an interview with U.S. News and World Report on August 31, 1959 was asked: "Do you mean that banks, in buying Government securities, do not lend out their customers' deposits? That they create the money they use to buy the securities?"
Answer (by Secretary Anderson): "That is correct. Banks are different from other lending institutions. When a savings and loan association, an insurance company, or a credit union makes a loan, it lends the very dollar that its customers have previously paid in. But when a bank makes a loan, it simply adds to the borrower's deposit account in the bank by the amount of the loan. The money is not taken from anyone else's deposit; it was not previously paid in to the bank by anyone. It's new money, created by the bank for the use of the borrower."
"We are completely dependent on the commercial Banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit. If the Banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the picture, the tragic absurdity of our hopeless position is almost incredible, but there it is. It is the most important subject intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present civilization may collapse unless it becomes widely understood and the defects remedied soon." (Robert H. Hemphill, Credit Manager of Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta, Ga.)
"The banks -- commercial banks and the Federal Reserve -- create all the money of this nation and its people pay interest on every dollar of that newly created money. Which means that private banks exercise unconstitutionally, immorally, and ridiculously the power to tax the people. For every newly created dollar dilutes to some extent the value of every other dollar already in circulation." (Congressman Jerry Voorhis)
On top of all that the bankers were able to get Congress to allow them to practice fractional banking. The banks can loan out 98% of the money on deposit, so if you deposited one thousand dollars, the bank could loan out nine hundred and eighty dollars. This is creating money out of thin air, account money, no money has actually been printed yet now out of the 98% available to be loaned out, you now owe more interest and no money has been printed to repay the principle much less the interest. This money can continue to be loaned out until it reaches zero. What a scam! This was a fraud from the beginning because bank-created money was required to repay interest, which was impossible because only the principal was created.
Francis Corbin, a delegate from Virginia  said: "The debts due by the United States and how much is due to foreign nations! No part of the principal is paid to those nations; nor has even the interest been paid as honorably and punctually as it ought. Nay, we were obliged to borrow money last year to pay the interest. What! Borrow money to discharge the interest of what was borrowed, and continually augment the amount of the public debt! Such a plan would destroy the richest country on earth."
Here is a example of how the Social Security scam works: Paul, in the year 1940, saves by paying one hundred dollars to the national Social Security Administration. He receives in exchange a claim which is virtually an unconditional government IOU drawn upon future taxpayers. Because government uses this money to meet the interest it owes, and places a IOU in the fund to cover your deposit. It is a tax and a forced loan that is spend ahead of collection so that the contributions of the Peters of 1970 are called upon to meet government obligations to the Pauls of 1940 when they claim upon Social Security. The administrators of 1940 shifted their problems to the administrators of 1970 when they would be either dead or retired. The problem is compounded by the fact that whereas Paul's one hundred dollars was redeemable in silver, it must now be discharged by inflationary non-redeemable debt [fiat] money. You cannot discharge debt with a debit note, only transfer it to the next generation.
Moral breakdown and rejection of godly principles will destroy our once great nation. However we will focus on the destruction resulting from the use of paper money, the weapon of the internationalists.
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF UNITED STATES BANKING AND PAPER MONEY
1765: Prior to the establishment of the United States, Blackstone said in his commentaries: "If a man counterfeits the King's money; and if a man brings false money into the realm counterfeit to the money of England, knowing the money to be false." As to the first branch, counterfeiting the King's money; this is treason, whether the false money be uttered in payment or not. Also if the King's own ministers alter the standard of alloy established by law, it is treason."
1781: George Washington wrote to John Laurens and said: "Experience has demonstrated the impracticability long to maintain a paper credit without funds for its redemption."
APRIL 12, 1782: John Adams negotiated with the Netherlands to receive a loan and recognition for the United States.
APRIL 19, 1782: The Netherlands recognized the independence of the United States.
JUNE 11, 1782: Dutch bankers agree to lend two million dollars to the United States.
OCTOBER 8, 1782: A treaty of commerce and friendship was signed between the United States and the Netherlands.
NOVEMBER 30, 1782: A preliminary peace treaty is signed between the United States and England. The most important provisions are the establishment of boundaries and recognition of American independence. All debts due to creditors of either country are accepted as valid debts.
FEBRUARY 28, 1785: Britain threatens to break off the treaty because Americans have failed to comply with the treaty, by having paid the debts owed to Britain.
JUNE-SEPTEMBER 1785: There is a major depression because of unstable paper money resulting in falling prices. This allowed some of the States to discharge their debts on a basis which was sometimes a thousand to one.
1786: The board of Treasury in 1786 condemned paper currency "the revival of a paper currency and the rage for another experiment in this fallacious medium that has so far prevailed as to enter into the system of revenue of several States".
1787: During the federal convention, Roger Sherman made the statement that: "no Government has a right to impose on its subjects any foreign currency to be received in payments as money which is not of intrinsic value: unless such Government will assume and undertake to secure and make good to the possessor of such currency the full value which they oblige him to receive it for."
JANUARY 27, 1787: Shays rebellion took place because of financial depression.
JANUARY 14, 1790: Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton says the United States should pay its debts at par value, even though many speculators would profit by this. [Alexander Hamilton married into the Rothschild family December 14, 1780, Alexander Hamilton was born Alexander Levine, of Jewish lineage, in St. Croix, the West Indies. After changing his name and his geographical situs, he married Elizabeth Schuyler, the second daughter of Phillip Schuyler, at the bride's home in Albany, New York. The bride's mother was Catherine Van Rensselaer, daughter of Colonel John R. Van Rensselaer, who was the son of Hendrik, the grandson of Killiaen, the first partroon. [THE INTIMATE LIFE OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON, by Allan Hamilton 1910] [It has been reported that there are documents in the British museum that prove Alexander Hamilton received payment from the Rothschild's for his dastardly deeds. Could this payment have been for his involvement in the establishment of a foreign bank in this country, and for convincing Congress to assume the States debts, which would have created a debt obligation binding the United States government and the States to the international bankers?]
JUNE 20, 1790: Alexander Hamilton convinces Congress to pass the Assumption Act, under which the federal government is to assume the States debts.
DECEMBER 14, 1790: Alexander Hamilton submits a plan for a bank of the United States, mainly as a vehicle for the funding of debts under the Assumption Act and to establish credit.
FEBRUARY 25, 1791: The bank of the United States is chartered.
MARCH 1-2, 1792: Congress debates the propriety of Alexander Hamilton's conduct of his office as Secretary of the Treasury. Nothing irregular is discovered.
APRIL 2, 1792: Congress passes the Coinage Act, which establishes a mint and prescribes a decimal system of coinage.
FEBRUARY 2, 1793: Alexander Hamilton resigns as Secretary of Treasury.
JANUARY 24-FEBRUARY 20, 1811: Congress debates renewal of the charter for the Bank of the United States.
MARCH 4, 1811: The Bank of the United States is closed permanently.
1812-1815: The War of 1812 breaks out with Britain.
DECEMBER 5, 1815: President Madison proposes a second Bank of the United States to succeed the first Bank that failed to be rechartered in 1811.
MARCH 14, 1816: Congress creates the second Bank of the United States.
JANUARY 7, 1817: The second Bank of the United States is opened.
SEPTEMBER 11, 1830: The Anti-Masonic party acquires national status by holding a convention in Philadelphia.
DECEMBER 6, 1830: President Andrew Jackson attacks the Bank of the United States.
SEPTEMBER 26, 1831: The Anti-Masonic party holds a national convention in Baltimore.
MARCH 17, 1832: The Banking Select Committee said: "That the consequences of the present, is that the currency of the United States is bank notes, to the exclusion of the precious metals. The exclusion of gold and silver coins from circulation is a serious defect, which ought not to be tolerated, and which should be speedily remedied. There is not an example on record of the successful issue of a paper currency, and our experiment has been too short and dubious to prove its suitableness as a permanent regulation."
JUNE 11, 1832: A bill to renew the charter of the Bank of the United States is submitted by Congress.
JULY 3 1832: The Bank bill is approved.
OCTOBER 1832: The Anti-Masonic party backs Andrew Jackson, and he is re-elected.
JUNE 1, 1833: The Secretary of Treasury refuses to follow the order of President Jackson to distribute the Bank of United States funds into State banks.
SEPTEMBER 18, 1833: President Jackson reads to his cabinet a paper drafted by the Attorney General as to the reasons why the federal deposits should be removed from the Bank of the United States.
DECEMBER 26, 1833: Senator Henry Clay offers two resolutions of censure against President Jackson for his plan to remove deposits from the Bank of the United States.
MARCH 17, 1834: Representative Gillet, a member of the Banking Select Committee, concurred in the expediency of increasing the circulation of gold coin, arguing that, "under the paper system, banks have broken, and on whom did the loss most severely fall? Upon the poor, who understood little of the condition and credit of banks. The wealthy usually foresaw the evil and protected themselves."
MARCH 28, 1834: The Senate approves the criticizing of President Jackson.
APRIL 4, 1834: The House passes four resolutions sustaining the bank policy of the Jackson administration.
APRIL 15, 1834: President Jackson makes a formal protest to the Senate concerning its resolution of censure.
MAY 7, 1834: The Senate refuses to enter President Jackson's protest in its journals.
DECEMBER 1, 1834: President Jackson declares that the national debt will be paid off JANUARY 1, 1835.
JANUARY 30, 1835: There is an attempt to assassinate President Jackson.
FEBRUARY 18, 1836: The Bank of the United States charter expires, the Bank receives a charter in Pennsylvania.
DECEMBER 5, 1836: President Andrew Jackson said in his message to Congress: "It is apparent from the whole context of the Constitution as well as the history of the times which gave birth to it, that it was the purpose of the Convention to establish a currency consisting of the precious metals. These were adopted by a per-exchange, such as of certain agricultural commodities recognized by the statutes of some States as tender for debts, or the still more pernicious expedient of paper currency."
JANUARY 23, 1840: A bill establishing an Independent Treasury is proposed by Congress.
JUNE 30, 1840: The Independent Treasury bill passes the House.
JULY 28, 1841: A bill re-establishing a National Bank passes the Senate.
AUGUST 13, 1841: The House approves the bill to re-establish the National Bank.
AUGUST 13, 1841: The Independent Act of 1840 is repealed.
AUGUST 16, 1841: President Tyler vetoes the Bank bill.
SEPTEMBER 3, 1841: The Senate approves the second Bank bill for a National Bank under another name.
SEPTEMBER 9, 1841: President Tyler vetoes the second Bank bill.
AUGUST 6, 1846: The Independent Treasury Act is approved.
APRIL 12, 1861: The Civil War starts.
AUGUST 5, 1861: Congress passes the first National income tax.
AUGUST 21, 1861: The United States issues the first paper currency.
FEBRUARY 25, 1863: Congress establishes a National Banking system.
1864: The Coinage Act of 1834 had the purpose of striking a fatal blow at the ability of banks to sustain a circulation of small denomination paper currencies. The invalid conclusion that the legal-tender acts of the Civil War were constitutional because they effected through a paper medium the same type of "debasement", which no one "ever imagined was taking private property without compensation or without due process of law".
APRIL 14, 1865: A short time after President Lincoln ordered the Lincoln greenbacks to be printed; which would deprive the banks from charging interest on the money they would have printed, President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. It's been proven this was a conspiracy because of the other four men who were involved in the assassination, and it has also been established that these men were on the payroll of the Rothschild's.
OCTOBER 31, 1865: The public debt of the United States stands at over seventy dollars per capita.
MARCH 18, 1869: Congress passes the public Credit Act to pay the public debt in gold, leaving three hundred million in greenbacks and a bitter debate about redeeming them.
July 28, 1868: The Fourteenth Amendment is enacted, which not only created federal citizenship, it also made it illegal for federal citizens to question the federal debt. [clause four 14th Amendment]
SEPTEMBER 24, 1869: On this "Black Friday" a financial panic occurs after two stock gamblers, Jay Gould and James Fisk, try to organize a corner on the gold market. The Grant administration dumps four million dollars in gold on the market, the price falls in fifteen minutes from one hundred and sixty two dollars to one hundred and thirty three dollars and many investors are ruined.
1873: The historian, William Graham Sumner explained that: "The popular mind rests on instances like our continental money, as showing the error of paper money where it absolutely perishes. It is thought that, short of this, only alarmists see danger. The story of Austria shows that an irredeemable paper currency is a national calamity of the first magnitude, of which one may indeed find greater or lesser examples, but of which the least is a peremptory warning to statesmen and financiers. It is like a disease in the blood, undermining the Constitution and spreading decay through all the arteries of business. In its measure and according to circumstances it is pernicious, if not fatal."
FEBRUARY 12, 1873: Congress terminates the coinage of silver, because the intrinsic value of bullion exceeds its face value, this Act becomes known as "the crime of 73."
SEPTEMBER 8, 1873: Jay Cooke and Company declares itself bankrupt, this causes a three year depression.
APRIL 22, 1874: President Grant vetoes a bill passed by Congress validating the issuance of greenbacks.
JUNE 20, 1874: Congress passes a Currency Act fixing the maximum amount of greenbacks in circulation at three hundred and eighty-eight million dollars.
JANUARY 14, 1875: Congress passes the Specie Resumption Act, reducing the circulation of greenbacks to three hundred million dollars.
AUGUST 19, 1877: In a speech made by the Secretary of Treasury John Sherman, he said: "There is a large class of people who believe that paper can be, and ought to be, made into money without any promise or hope of redemption; that a note should be printed: "This is a dollar," and be made a legal tender. I regard this as a mild form of lunacy, and have no disposition to debate with men who indulge in such delusions, which have prevailed to some extent, at different times, in all countries, but whose life has been brief, and which have shared the fate of other popular delusions. The Supreme Court only maintained the constitutionality of the legal tender promise to pay a dollar by a divided court, and on the ground that it was issued in the nature of a forced loan, to be redeemed upon the payment of a real dollar; that is, so many grains of silver or gold. I therefore dismiss such wild theories, and speak only to those who are willing to assume, as an axiom, that gold and silver or coined money, have been proven by all human experience to be the best possible standards of value, and that paper money is simply a promise to pay such coined money, and should be made and kept equal to coined money, by being convertible on demand. [emphasis mine]
JANUARY 1885: The Treasury surplus was up to five hundred million dollars.
JANUARY 17, 1894: The federal gold reserves drop to only sixty million dollars. The federal government offers a bond issue of fifty million dollars to make up gold reserve losses.
NOVEMBER 13, 1894: Another federal bond issue of fifty million dollars is offered. Because of poor public response, most of this loan is taken over by New York bankers.
JANUARY 6, 1896: The fourth bond issue in three years is floated, this time in public subscription totaling one hundred million dollars, federal treasury reserves are down to seventy nine million dollars which is considered so low as to endanger the continuance of the gold standard.
MARCH 14, 1900: Congress passes the Gold Standard Act, under which other forms of money are made redeemable in gold on demand, a gold reserve of one hundred and fifty million dollars is created, and the sale of bonds is authorized when necessary to maintain the reserve.
MARCH 13, 1907: A financial panic begins with a sharp drop of the stock market.
OCTOBER-NOVEMBER 1907: A run begins on October 23rd on the Knickerbocker Trust Co. that wipes out that bank, many other banks fail, unemployment rises, and food prices soar. Increased bank deposits infused by the United States Treasury restore confidence, supported by loans from such capitalist leaders as J. Pierpont Morgan.
MAY 30, 1908: Under the impact of the financial panic of 1907, the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Act is passed by Congress, it establishes the National Monetary Commission to study banking.
JULY 12 1909: Congress passes an amendment to the Constitution authorizing the imposition of a tax on incomes.
FEBRUARY 25, 1913: The sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is declared in effect. [This amendment did not confer any new power of taxation on Congress and did not extend the power of taxation to subjects previously exempted. Its whole purpose was to exclude the source from which income tax is a direct tax which must be apportioned among the states, and thus remove the occasion which might otherwise exist for an apportionment. [27th American Jurisprudence, Section 17, pages 317, 318.] "The source of the taxing power is not the 16th Amendment, it is Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution." [Penn Mutual Indemnity Co. v. Commissioner, 32 T.C. 1959, CCH at pg. 659.]
December 23, 1913: The Federal Reserve Act is signed, dividing the country into twelve districts, each with a federal reserve bank. The act also provides for a drastic currency based on commercial assets rather than bonded indebtedness, mobilization of bank reserves, public control of the banking system [foreign interest], and decentralization rather than centralization.
JULY 28, 1914: World War One begins.
OCTOBER 15, 1915: American bankers, organized by J.P. Morgan and Co., agree to lend Great Britain and France five hundred million dollars, the largest loan floated in any country.
JULY 11, 1916: The Federal Aid Road Act is signed by President Wilson. The measure provides five million dollars for the use of the States that undertake road building programs, and it establishes a system of highway classification. Almost two hundred and fifty thousand commercial vehicles and more than three million private cars are registered to use public roads.
JULY 17, 1916: The Federal Farm Loan Act is passed by Congress.
OCTOBER 3, 1916: Congress passes the War Revenue Act, increasing corporate and personal income taxes and establishing excise-profits, and luxury taxes.
APRIL 5, 1918: The War Finance Corporation is formed, capitalized at five hundred million dollars to support war industries through loans and bond sales.
1920: Congress abolishes the United States Treasury and establishes the Dept. of Treasury, in the Act of 1920 66th Congress session II ch. 214.
APRIL 9-16, 1924: The United States banks loan Germany two hundred million for reparation.
NOVEMBER 14, 1925: Because of a severe financial depression in Europe, the United States agrees to a sharp reduction in foreign war debts as well as interest rates on them, but still insists on partial payment.
JANUARY-APRIL 1926: War debt agreements are reached between the United States and several European countries, including France, Italy, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Rumina, Estonia and Latvia. In the case of France it is agreed that the four billion dollars owed to the United States banks will be paid over a period of sixty two years. Italy, which owes one billion five hundred million dollars is also to be paid back in sixty two years.
MARCH 10, 1928: The United States pays three hundred million dollars to Germany to reimburse them for property taken during World War One.
JULY 10, 1929: The new paper currency, only two thirds the size of the old, goes into circulation.
OCTOBER 24-28, 1929: The stock market crashes as millions of shares change hands and billions of dollars in value are lost.
FEBRUARY 24, 1930: J.P. Morgan and Co. announce that the group formed to halt the market crash on October 24-29, has sold all its shares and is disbanded.
DECEMBER 11, 1930: The largest Bank failure in the nations history takes place when the Bank of the United States closes its doors in New York.
SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1931: The bank panic increases as over eight hundred banks are closed in two months. Individuals start to hoard gold to protect themselves.
DECEMBER 8, 1931: The President's Address message to Congress calls for increased taxation to make up for the deficit of nine hundred and two millon dollars for the year 30-31.
JANUARY 22, 1932: The Reconstruction Finance Corporation came into existence with the purpose of loaning money to the banks.
FEBRUARY 27, 1932: Congress passes the Glass-Steagall Act, which authorizes the sale of seven hundred and fifty million dollars worth of the government gold supply and allows the Federal Reserve system more leeway in discounting commercial paper.
JULY 21, 1932: President Hoover signs the Emergency Relief Act which provides three hundred million dollars in loans to the States and increases the Reconstruction Finance Corporations debt ceiling to three billion dollars to make loans to State and local governments.
March 10, 1933: By the continued use of paper money the United States had to be declared bankrupt, which was proven by the bankruptcy procedures that were followed in President Roosevelt's Executive Orders. President Roosevelt declared the United States bankrupt by Presidential Executive Order, 6073 and the subsequent Executive Orders, 6102, 6111 and 6260. [these documents are still publicly attainable in any federal depository library]
MAY 23, 1933: On the House floor, Congressman McFadden brought impeachment charges against many of the Federal Reserve board members, Federal Reserve agents of many States, comptroller of the currency, and several secretaries of the United States Treasury for high crimes and misdemeanors, including the theft of eighty billion dollars from the United States Government and with committing the same thefts in 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 and 1933 and in the years previous to 1928, amounting to billions of dollars. These charges were remanded to the Judiciary committee for investigation, where these charges were effectively buried and until this day have never been answered. [See Congressional Record pp. 4055-4058 May 23, 1933]
JUNE 16, 1933: The National Industrial Recovery Act is passed, this allows private corporations to make their own laws and write their own statutes, as applied to the public.
JANUARY 30, 1934: The Gold Reserve Act gives the President the right to change the value of the dollar. The President immediately devalues the dollar to fifty nine cents.
JUNE 28, 1934: The Federal Home Association is established, to insure the loans made by banks in building homes.
MAY 27, 1935: The United States Supreme Court declares that the National Industrial Recovery Act is unconstitutional. Since the Federal Reserve is a private corporation and passes its own laws; does this not make the Federal Reserve unconstitutional [illegal]? [Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 1934]
AUGUST 14, 1935: The Social Security Act [Federal Insurance Contribution Act] becomes law, the American people are told this is a insurance policy. This is actually an agreement between you and the United States government where you have agreed under tort law that you have contributed to the national debt and that you are a wrong doer under the definition of the word contribution, as it is used by the government. [see the word contribution and the words tort feasor in Blacks Law Dictionary 6th ed.]
AUGUST 23, 1935: The Banking Act of 1935 is passed, restructuring the federal reserve system to allow for increased control of banking and credit.
AUGUST 28, 1935: The Public Utility Act is signed, the United States takes control of the countries utilities.
AUGUST 29, 1935: Congress passes the Farm Mortgage Act to offset the Supreme Courts decision against the Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act.
JANUARY 4, 1939: President Roosevelt requests one billion three hundred and nineteen million five hundred and fifty eight thousand dollars for defense.
JANUARY 5, 1939: President Roosevelt submits a budget of nine billion dollars to Congress.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1939: World War Two Begins.
JANUARY 3, 1940: President Roosevelt requests one billion eight hundred million dollars for defense.
MAY 31, 1940: President Roosevelt requests one billion three hundred million dollars for defense.
JUNE 22, 1940: Congress raises the national debt ceiling to a record high of forty nine billion dollars.
JANUARY 8, 1941: The Presidents budget calls for a record seventeen billion eight hundred million dollars, of which sixty percent is for defense.
MARCH 30, 1941: President Roosevelt approves a measure that raises the ceiling on the public debt to a record sixty five billion dollars.
JANUARY 5, 1943: President Roosevelt proposed budget for the fiscal year 1943 is one hundred and eight billion nine hundred and three million dollars.
JANUARY 13, 1944: President Roosevelt proposes a budget of one hundred billion dollars for 1944.
JULY 28, 1945: The United Nations charter is ratified by the Senate.
JANUARY 2, 1950: A report by the United States Dept. of Commerce shows that for the period July 1, 1945 to September 30, 1949, the United States spent almost twenty five billion dollars in foreign aid. Military spending for the same years has been one third of the yearly budget.
JULY 19, 1950: President Truman calls for partial mobilization after Korea crosses the 38th parallel and also asks Congress for ten billion dollars for the military.
APRIL 30, 1951: President Truman gets fifty seven billion dollars for defense for 1951.
JANUARY 21, 1952: The President's budget calls for expenditures of eighty five billion four hundred and forty four million dollars for the coming fiscal year. Slightly over three fourths of the budget is to spent on "national security".
JUNE 29, 1955: The Federal Aid Highway Act is signed by the President. It authorizes thirty three billion dollars to be spent over the next thirteen years on the highways.
JANUARY 16, 1957: A peace time budget of seventy two billion eight hundred and seven million dollars is proposed.
JANUARY 13, 1958: The fiscal deficit is up to twelve billion four hundred twenty seven million dollars.
AUGUST 7, 1958: President Eisenhower signs into law an appropriations bill for defense in the amount of thirty nine billion six hundred and two million eight hundred and twenty seven thousand dollars.
1961: President Eisenhower allots forty seven billion six hundred and fifty four million dollars for defense.
NOVEMBER 28, 1961: President Kennedy "reached the decision that silver metal should gradually be withdrawn from our monetary reserves."
1963: Six days prior to President John F. Kennedy being assassinated, he ordered the Treasury to print United States Notes to be used as legal tender, a limited amount were printed before his untimely death. This action would have put the Federal Reserve out of business because they would no longer be able to collect interest on the money they would have printed. This would have eventually removed the financial and political control the international bankers had over this country. Ten days prior to his assassination President Kennedy said "The high office of President has been used to foment a plot to destroy the American's freedom, and before I leave office I must inform the citizen of his plight."
NOVEMBER 22, 1963: President John F. Kennedy is assassinated. One of the first acts President Johnson orders is the reversal of the order President Kennedy had made, which had allowed the printing of United States Notes without interest. Was President Kennedy assassinated for the same reasons as President Lincoln?
NOVEMBER 26, 1963: Prior to this date the Federal Reserve notes were a promise to pay and were redeemable on demand by the bearer for lawful money. After President Johnson's order to remove the United States notes, the Federal Reserve issued Federal Reserve notes without the promise to pay to the bearer on demand lawful money. Interestingly, the first fifty million no-promise federal reserve notes were shipped out the same day that President John F. Kennedy was buried.
MARCH 8, 1965: The first troops landed in Vietnam.
1967: The deficit is announced to be twenty five billion dollars.
JUNE 1968: Marked the first time in United States history that a paper currency, purportedly designated as legal tender, was not directly or indirectly redeemable in silver or gold coin or bullion.
SEPTEMBER 30, 1967: President Johnson submits a record budget of one hundred and eighty six billion dollars.
JANUARY 29, 1971: President Nixon announces that the deficit is thirty eight billion seven hundred and eighty three million dollars.
1972: President Nixon announces the federal government will share thirty billion dollars with State and local governments.
1974: President Nixon announces a fiscal budget of three hundred and four billion four hundred million dollars.
FEBRUARY 3, 1975: President Ford announces a deficit of fifty one billion five hundred million dollars.
At the Constitutional Convention Benjamin Franklin felt there was too much preoccupation with salaries. He therefore addressed the Constitutional Convention: "Sir, though we may set out in the beginning with moderate salaries, we shall find that such will not be of long continuance. Reasons will never be wanting for proposed augmentations; and there will always be party for giving more to the ruler, that the rulers may be able to return to give more to them. Hence, as all history informs us, there has been in every State and kingdom a constant kind of warfare between the governing and the governed, the one striving to obtain more for its support, and the other to pay less. And this has alone occasioned great convulsions, actual civil wars, ending either in dethroning of the princes or enslaving the people. Generally, indeed, the ruling power carries its point, and we see the revenues of princes constantly increasing, and we see that they are never satisfied, but always in want of more. The more the people are discontented with the oppression of taxes, the greater need the prince has of money to distribute among his partisans, and pay the troops that are to suppress all resistance, and enable him to plunder at pleasure." "Sir, the saving of the salaries, that may at first be proposed, is not an object with me. The subsequent mischiefs of proposing them are that I apprehend. And therefore it is that I move the amendment. If it is not seconded or accepted, I must be contented with the satisfaction of having delivered my opinion frankly, and done my duty."
The highly qualified language of Article I8, cl. 2 also repels the clause empowers Congress "To borrow money on the credit of the United States" only. A forced loan, however, implies that the government has no credit in the eyes of reluctant lenders, and that it must compel the latter to part with their money because it can no longer convince them of its ability and intention to repay full value at a future time.
Davy Crockett, while serving as a Congressman helped fight a fire one night that broke out in a suburb of Washington. The next morning the Congress voted twenty thousand dollars to assist those whose homes were destroyed. Crockett voted for it. However, when he went home he found himself in deep trouble with one of his constituents named Horatio Bunce. Bunce commended him for the anxiety to help the victims of the fire but scolded him for using other people's money as "charity." He challenged Crockett to find where the Constitution allowed Congress to spend one penny of other people's money for charity. Crockett couldn't think of any such provision. Crockett returned to Congress and ran into a similar situation. Congress wanted to give a substantial sum to the widow of a distinguished naval officer who had just died. Crockett took the floor and said: "Mr. Speaker, I have as much sympathy as any man in the House, but Congress has no power to appropriate this money as an act of charity. Every member upon this floor knows it. . . . I am the poorest man on this floor. I cannot vote for this bill, but I will give one week's pay to the object, and if every member of Congress will do the same, it will amount to more than the bill asks." Mr. Crockett took his seat and the bill was defeated but none of the wealthy Congressman offered to meet his plea to donate one weeks pay to the widow.
A contemporary of the Revolution, Peletiah Webster said: "Paper money polluted the equity of our laws, turned them into engines of oppression, corrupted the justice of our public administration, destroyed the fortunes of thousands who had confidence in it, enervated the trade, husbandry, and manufactures of our country, and went far to destroy the morality of our people."
Bruce A. Budlong, the acting director of the special financing staff of the Department of Treasury said: "The same monetary system that was established on April 2, 1792, is in effect today."
Jefferson strongly opposed a perennial national debt: "The question, whether one generation of men has a right to bind another, is a question of such consequences as not only to merit decision, but place also among the fundamental principles of every government. The course of reflection in which we are immersed here [France] on the elementary principles of society has presented this question to my mind; and that no such obligation can be transmitted, I think very capable of proof. I set out on this ground, which I suppose to be self-evident: that the earth belongs in usufruct to the living; that the dead have neither powers nor rights over it. If [one generation] could charge another with a debt, then the earth would belong to the dead and not to the living generation. Then, no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence." Jefferson said: "I am not among those who fear the people. They, and not the rich, are our dependence for continued freedom. And to preserve their independence, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. We must make our election between economy and liberty or profusion and servitude. If we run into such debts as that we must be taxed in our meat and in our drink, in our necessaries and our comforts, in our labors and our amusements, for our callings and our creeds, as the people of England are, our people, like them, must come to labor sixteen hours in the twenty-four, and give the earnings of fifteen of these to the government for their debts and daily expenses; and the sixteenth being insufficient to afford us bread, we must live, as they now do, on oatmeal and potatoes; have not time to think, no means of calling the mismanager's to account; but be glad to obtain subsistence by hiring ourselves to rivet their chains on the necks of our fellow sufferers. This example reads to us the salutary lesson that private fortunes are destroyed by public as well as by private extravagance. And this is the tendency of all human governments. Departure from principle in one instance becomes a precedent for a second, that second for a third, and so on, till the bulk of the society is reduced to be mere automatons of misery, to have no sensibilities left but for sinning and suffering. Then begins indeed the bellum omnium in omnia which some philosophers, observing it to be so general in this world, have mistaken for the natural instead of the abusive state of man. And the forehorse of this frightful team is public debt. Taxation follows that, and in its train wretchedness and oppression."
Ellsworth said during the Convention: "Thought this a favorable moment to shut and bar the door against paper money. The mischiefs of the various experiments which had been made were now fresh in the public mind, and had excited the disgust of all the respectable part of America. By withholding the power from the new government, more friends of influence would be gained to it money can in no case be necessary. Give the government credit, and other resources will offer. The power may do harm, never good."
Wilson said during the Convention: "It will have a most salutary influence of the credit of the United States to remove the possibility of paper money. This expedient can never succeed whilst its mischiefs are remembered. And as long as it can be resorted to, it will be a bar to her resources."
Butler said during the Convention: "That paper was a legal tender in no country in Europe. He was urgent for disarming the government of such a power."
Today the American economy operates under a monetary system which is completely outside the Constitution. Its fiat money is continually manipulated both in value and in quantity. [THE MAKING OF AMERICA 1985]
The definition of fiat money is: "money composed of otherwise essentially valueless things that neither have a commercial use nor constitute a claim against anyone, but do have a special legal qualification. The money is not the material bearing the stamp as authority but the stamp alone."
C.C. Pinckney said during the Convention: "That paper money corrupted the morals of the people; it had diverted them from the paths of honest industry to the ways of ruinous speculation; it had destroyed both public and private credit, and had brought total ruin on numberless widows and orphans." "I apprehend these general reasoning will be found true with respect to paper money: that experience has shown that, in every state where it has been practiced since the revolution, it always carries the gold and silver out of the country, and impoverishes it."
Sherman said during the Convention: "This was a favorable crisis for crushing paper money. If the consent of the legislature could authorize emissions of it, the friends of paper money would make every exertion to get into the legislature in order to license it."
T. Coleman Andrews served as Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service for nearly three years in the early fifties. Finally he resigned and made the following statement: "The income tax is fulfilling the Marxist prophecy that the surest way to destroy a capitalist society is by steeply graduated taxes on income and heavy levies upon the estates of people when they die. As matters now stand, if our children make the most of their capabilities and training they will have to give most of it to the tax collector and so become slaves of the government. People cannot pull themselves up by their own bootstraps anymore because the tax collector gets the boots and the straps as well. The income tax is bad because it is oppressive to all and discriminates particularly against those people who prove themselves most adept at keeping the wheels of business turning and creating maximum employment and high standard of living for their fellow men. I believe that a better way to raise revenue must be found because I am convinced that the present system is leading us right back to the very tyranny from which those, who established this land of freedom, risked their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor to forever free themselves."
The American historian George Bancroft said: "History cannot name a man who has gained enduring honor by causing the issue of paper money. Wherever such paper has been employed, it has in every case thrown upon its authors the burden of exculpation under the plea of pressing necessity. Paper money has no hold, and from its very nature can acquire no hold, on the conscience or affections of the people. It impairs all certainty of possession, and taxes none so heavily as the class who earn their scant possession, by daily labor. It injures the husbandman by a twofold diminution of the exchangeable value of his harvest. It is the favorite of those who seek gain without willingness to toil; it is the deadly foe of industry. No powerful political party ever permanently rested for support on the theory that it is wise and right. No statesman has been thought well of by his kind in a succeeding generation for having been its promoter."
This is what the Lord had to say about usury in Exodus 22:25: "If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not be like a moneylender; charge him no interest."
Leviticus 25:35-37: "If one of your countrymen becomes poor and is unable to support himself among you, help him as you would an alien or a temporary resident, so he can continue to live among you. Do not take interest of any kind from him, but fear your God, so that your countryman may continue to live among you. You must not lend him money at interest or sell him food at a profit."
Deuteronomy 23:19-20: "Do not charge your brother interest, whether on money or food or anything else that may earn interest. You may charge a foreigner interest, but not a brother Israelite, so that the LORD your God may bless you in everything you put your hand to in the land you are entering to possess."
Psalms 15:5: "Who lends his money without usury and does not accept a bribe against the innocent. He who does these things will never be shaken."
Ezekiel 18:8: "He does not lend at usury or take excessive interest. He withholds his hand from doing wrong and judges fairly between man and man."
Ezekiel 18:13: "He lends at usury and takes excessive interest. Will such a man live? He will not! Because he has done all these detestable things, he will surely be put to death and his blood will be on his own head."
Ezekiel 18:17: "He withholds his hand from sin and takes no usury or excessive interest. He keeps my laws and follows my decrees. He will not die for his father's sin; he will surely live."
Ezekiel 22:12: "In you men accept bribes to shed blood; you take usury and excessive interest and make unjust gain from your neighbors by extortion. And you have forgotten me, declares the Sovereign LORD."
The definition of usury is: "Interest; or premium paid or stipulated to be paid for the use of money." [Noah Webster 1828] In the Hebrew the word usury means; "interest."
By a preponderance of the evidence; even if you don't recognize the Bible teachings, you cannot deny the thinking of our forefathers. Clearly they wanted this country to abstain from paper money. If you will read the money clauses in the United States Constitution it is obvious that their intent was to prevent the use of paper money.
So what happened?
The international bankers were able to position men who were indebted to them in all areas of government, including the judiciary. And with unlimited money resources were able to influence world events like wars including Desert Storm. A glance back through history will show you this is correct. Am I laying all blame on the bankers? Not at all. Their plan could not have succeeded without the greed of man and his love for money. The internationalist plans are nearly complete. What are their goals? World domination and the ownership of people.
"At what point shall we expect the approach of danger? By what means shall we fortify against it? Shall we expect some trans-Atlantic military giant to step the ocean and crush us with a blow? Never! All the armies of Europe, Asia and Africa combined could not, by force, take a drink from the Ohio, or make a track on the Blue Ridge in a trial of a thousand years. At what point then is the approach of danger to be expected? I answer, if it ever reach us it must spring up amongst us. It cannot come from abroad. If destruction be our lot, we ourselves must be its author and finisher. As a nation of free men, we must live through all times, or die by suicide." (Abraham Lincoln)
"If you will not fight for the right when you can easily win without bloodshed; if you will not fight when your victory will be sure and not too costly; you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a small chance of survival. There may even be a worse case: you may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves." (Winston Churchill)
Unfortunately this country and its people played a deciding role in their plans. Without this governments resources and the country's manpower and blind obedience they could not have succeeded. Our forefathers share the greater share of the blame, because in their era the balance of power was not so overwhelming in the hands of the government. Apathy about what the king was doing behind closed doors has created our predicament, past and present.
The government has clearly violated the Constitution and the mind set of our forefathers regarding the use of paper money. As a result this Country was bankrupted by 1933 and as a corporation the government defaulted its right to govern; and by continuing to do so, is operating under color of law. Since that time this country has received its just reward just as our forefathers predicted. The nation has become immoral as a result and the taxes unbearable to the middle class and the poor. Because of the government representatives, who are foreign agents and represent the international bankers, not Americans, this country is under a Foreign King. This Nation is still under British rule. The United Nations is a front for the King to control the world. The United Nations was granted its power by the United States and other member nations. The Rockefeller's gave the United Nations then land on which it operates, the United States voluntarily became subservient to the United Nations in October 24, 1945. It also granted this foreign organization a Title of Nobility, which is expressly forbidden by the Constitution. This was all done while the American people sat back and watched in a inebriated state, enjoying the social benefits.
"Everyone wants to live at the expense of the State. They forget that the State lives at the expense of everyone." (Frederic Bastiat)
Can this government be saved? Doubtful. The slate needs to be wiped clean, and begun a new with a fresh start. This time without paper money, we need to go back to a gold and silver standard as our forefathers wanted. You may choose to disagree with the statements I've made at the end of this paper. But, when this government collapses of its own accord as our forefathers predicted, and God Almighty predicted in His written Word, maybe then you will believe -- if you are still alive.
[Jonathan Williams recorded in his book Legions of Satan, 1781, that Cornwallis revealed to Washington during his surrender that "a holy war will now begin on America, and when it is ended America will be supposedly the citadel of freedom, but her millions will unknowingly be loyal subjects to the Crown." Cornwallis went on to explain what would seem to be a self contradiction: "Your churches will be used to teach the Jew's religion and in less than two hundred years the whole nation will be working for divine world government. That government that they believe to be divine will be the British Empire. All religions will be permeated with Judaism without even being noticed by the masses, and they will all be under the invisible all-seeing eye on the Grand Architect of Freemasonry."
Watch for "A COUNTRY DEFEATED IN VICTORY" released in 1994. monie.htm
James Franklin Montgomery SUI JURIS
Associated Files: Common Law Versus
Law of Office Found
Friends, Enemies and the die-hard Doubters A King's Charter that Refuses to Die
How Long can a Corporation Live? The United States is Still a British Colony
A Country Defeated in Victory - Part I Part II Part III